Analyte (abbr.)Chemical nameChemical class
Function of the marker
Analytical
technique
MatrixABF
Method
No
tt-MAtrans,trans-muconic acidBiomarker of benzeneGC-MSU1
EtAde3-Ethyl-adenineUrinary DNA Adduct (exposure to ethylating agent)LC-MS/MSU4
MeAde3-Methyl-adenineUrinary DNA Adduct (exposure to methylating agents)LC-MS/MSU4
ThioetherThioetherExposure to electro-philic compoundsPhotometryU8
8-OHdG8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosineOidized derivative of deoxyguanisineLC-MS/MSU9
CREACreatinineNormalization of urinary concentrationsPhotometryU11
SCNThiocyanateExposure to hydrogen cyanide (and other cyanides)GC-MSU12
CotCotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSSa13
NicNicotine-LC-MS/MSSa13
OH-Cottrans-3'-hydroxy-cotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSSa13
AAValCarbamoylethyl-valineHemoglobine adducts (exposure to acrylamide)GC-MSB17
CEValN-2-Cyanoethyl-valineHemoglobine adducts (exposure to acrylonitrile)GC-MSB17
HOEtValN-2-Hydroxyethyl-valineHemoglobine adducts (exposure to ethylene oxide)GC-MSB17
MeValN-Methyl-valineHemoglobine adducts (exposure to methylating agents)GC-MSB17
CotCotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSP, S19
NicNicotine-LC-MS/MSP,S19
2-AN2-AminonaphthaleneAromatic amineGC-MSU20
3-ABP3-AminobiphenylAromatic amineGC-MSU20
4-ABP4-AminobiphenylAromatic amineGC-MSU20
o-Tolo-ToluidineAromatic amineGC-MSU20
ACNAcetonitrileGC-MSB,P,S22
NABN-Nitroso-anabasineTobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA)LC-MS/MSU23
NATN-Nitroso-anatabineTobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA)LC-MS/MSU23
NNAL4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanolTobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA)LC-MS/MSU23
NNAL-Gluc4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol-glucuronideTobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA)LC-MS/MSU23
NNNN-Nitroso-nornicotineTobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA)LC-MS/MSU, ETS23
DHNMA1,4-Dihydroxy-2-nonene-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (Ox. Stess, lipid peroxidation)LC-MS/MSU24
HNALMA4-Hydroxy-2-nonenelactone mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (Ox. Stess, lipid peroxidation)LC-MS/MSU24
HNAMA4-Hydroxy-2-nonene mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (Ox. Stess, lipid peroxidation)LC-MS/MSU24
HNE-MA4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (Ox. Stess, lipid peroxidation)LC-MS/MSU24
eAde1,N6-Etheno-adenineUrinary DNA Adduct ((Ox. Stess, lipid peroxidation)LC-MS/MSU25
eCyt3,N4-Etheno-cytosineUrinary DNA Adduct (Ox. Stess, lipid peroxidation)LC-MS/MSU25
4-ABP-Hb adductsHemoglobin adducts of 4-aminobiphenylAromatic amine (long-term exposure marker for 4-ABP)GC-MSB27
1-OH-Nap1-OH-NaphthalenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonLC-MS/MSU29
1-OH-Phe1-OH-PhenanthrenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonLC-MS/MSU29
1-OH-Pyr1-OH-PyrenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)LC-MS/MSU29
2-OH-Flu2-OH-FluorenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonLC-MS/MSU29
2-OH-Nap2-OH-NaphthalenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonLC-MS/MSU29
2-OH-Phe2-OH-PhenanthrenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonLC-MS/MSU29
3-OH-Phe3-OH-PhenanthrenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonLC-MS/MSU29
4-OH-Phe4-OH-PhenanthrenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonLC-MS/MSU29
9-OH-Phe9-OH-PhenanthrenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonLC-MS/MSU29
5-FU5-FluorouracilCytostatic drugLC-MS/MSW31
CPCyclophosphamideCytostatic drugLC-MS/MSW31
DoceDocetaxelCytostatic drugLC-MS/MSW31
GemGemcitabinCytostatic drugLC-MS/MSW31
IFIfosfamideCytostatic drugLC-MS/MSW31
MTXMethotrexatCytostatic drugLC-MS/MSW31
PacliPaclitaxelCytostatic drugLC-MS/MSW31
ADMAAsymmetric Dimethyl-arginineAmino acid (ox. stress, inflammation, NO imbalance)LC-MS/MSP32
ArgArginineAmino acidLC-MS/MSP32
CitCitrullineAmino acidLC-MS/MSP32
HcyHomo-cysteineAmino acid (CVD risk factor)LC-MS/MSP32
L-NMMAL-N-Monomethyl-arginineAmino acid (ox. stress, inflammation, NO imbalance)LC-MS/MSP32
MetMethionineAmino acidLC-MS/MSP32
Ntyr3-Nitro-tyrosineAmino acid (ox. stress)LC-MS/MSEBC32
SDMASymmetric Dimethyl-arginineAmino acid (ox. stress, inflammation, NO imbalance)LC-MS/MSP32
CotCotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSF33
Cot-GlucCotinine-glucuronideNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSF33
Cot-N-OxCotinine-N-oxidNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSF33
NicNicotine-LC-MS/MSF33
Nic-GlucNicotine-glucuronideNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSF33
Nic-N-OxNicotine-N-oxidNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSF33
NorCotNorcotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSF33
NorCotNorcotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSF33
OH-Cottrans-3'-hydroxy-cotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSF33
OH-Cot-Gluc3-Hydroxy-cotinine-glucuronideNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSF33
11-dh-TXB211-dehydro-thromboxane B2Eicosanoid (inflammation)LC-MS/MSU34
12-HETE12-hydroxyeicosa-tetraenoic acidEicosanoid (inflammation)LC-MS/MSU34
2,3-dn-8-iso-PGF2?2,3-dinor-8-epi/iso-prostaglandin F2 alphaEicosanoid (ox. stress)LC-MS/MSU34
2,3-dn-TXB22,3-dinor-thromboxane B2Eicosanoid (inflammation)LC-MS/MSU34
8-iso-PGF2?8-epi/iso-prostaglandin-F2 alphaEicosanoid (ox. stress)LC-MS/MSU34
LTE4Leukotriene E4Eicosanoid (inflammation)LC-MS/MSU34
PGD-Mtetranor-PGD metaboliteEicosanoid (inflammation)LC-MS/MSU34
PGE-Mtetranor-PGE metaboliteEicosanoid (inflammation)LC-MS/MSU34
PGF2?prostaglandin F2 alphaEicosanoid (ox. stressLC-MS/MSU34
CotCotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU,P,S,Sa36
Cot-GlucCotinine-glucuronideNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU36
Cot-N-OxCotinine-N-oxidNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU36
HyPyBut4-hydroxy-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acidNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU36
NicNicotine-LC-MS/MSU36
Nic-GlucNicotine-glucuronideNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU36
Nic-N-OxNicotine-N-oxidNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU36
NorCotNorcotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU36
NorNicNornicotineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU36
OH-Cottrans-3'-hydroxy-cotinineNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU36
OH-Cot-Gluc3-Hydroxy-cotinine-glucuronideNic-metaboliteLC-MS/MSU36
CEMACyanoethyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to acrylonitrile)LC-MS/MSU37
CMEMA2-Carboxy-1-ethylethyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to crotonaldehyde)LC-MS/MSU37
EMAEthyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to ethylating agents)LC-MS/MSU37
HEMA2-Hydroxy-ethyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to ethylene oxide)LC-MS/MSU37
HMPMA3-Hydroxy-1-methylpropyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to crotonaldehyde)LC-MS/MSU37
MMAMethyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to methylating agents)LC-MS/MSU37
PHEMA-12-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to styrene)LC-MS/MSU37
PHEMA-22-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to styrene)LC-MS/MSU37
SBMAS-Benzyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to toluene)LC-MS/MSU37
SPMAS-Phenyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to benzene)LC-MS/MSU37
1-MHBMA1-Hydroxybutene-2-yl mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to 1,3-butadiene)LC-MS/MSU38
2-HPMA2-Hydroxypropyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to propylene oxide)LC-MS/MSU38
2-MHBMA2-Hydroxybutene-1-yl mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to 1,3-butadiene)LC-MS/MSU38
3-HPMA3-Hydroxypropyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to acrolein)LC-MS/MSU38
AAMAN-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-l-cysteineMercapturic acid (exposure to acrylamide)LC-MS/MSU38
AMCCN-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cysteineMercapturic acid (exposure to dimethylformamide)LC-MS/MSU38
DHBMADihydroxybutyl-mercapturic acidMercapturic acid (exposure to 1,3-butadiene)LC-MS/MSU38
GAMAN-(R,S)-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-l-cysteinMercapturic acid (exposure to acrylamide)LC-MS/MSU38
CACholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
CDCAChenodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
DCADeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
GCAGlycocholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
GCDCAGlycochenodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
GDCAGlycodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
GHDCAGlycohyodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
GLCAGlycolithocholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
GUDCAGlycoursodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
HDCAHyodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
LCALithocholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
TCATaurocholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
TCDCATaurochenodeoxycholicacidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
TDCATaurodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
THDCATaurohyodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
TLCATaurolithocholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
TUDCATauroursodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
UDCAUrsodeoxycholic acidLipid (lipid absorption)LC-MS/MSP,S,U39
M-Ipara-Menthane-3,8-diol (M-I)Menthol metaboliteLC-MS/MSU,P,S, invitro41
MentholMentholFlavor compoundHS-SPME-GC-MSU,P,S, invitro42
AcetoneAcetoneKetone bodyGC-MSS, P, T043a
AcetoacetateAcetoacetateKetone bodyGC-MSS, P, T043a
3-hydroxybutyrate3-hydroxybutyrateKetone bodyGC-MSS, P, T043b
HPB-adduct4-Hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB)-releasing DNA adductsLong-term biomarker of exposure to NNK and NNN after metabolic activationLC-MS/MSB44
Free HPB4-Hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB)-releasing DNA adductsLong-term biomarker of exposure to NNK and NNN after metabolic activationLC-MS/MSinvitro44
3-OH-B[a]P3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonLC-MS/MSU46
NicHigh sensitive nicotine for PK analysis-LC-MS/MSP,S47
LysmerolLysmerolBoEx to Lysmeral (Flavor in consumer goods)LC-MS/MSU48
Lysmerylic acidLysmerylic acidBoEx to Lysmeral (Flavor in consumer goods)LC-MS/MSU48
OH-Lysmerylic acidOH-Lysmerylic acidBoEx to Lysmeral (Flavor in consumer goods)LC-MS/MSU48
TBBATer-Butylbenzoic acidBoEx to Lysmeral (Flavor in consumer goods)LC-MS/MSU48
TBHATer-Butylhippuric acidBoEx to Lysmeral (Flavor in consumer goods)LC-MS/MSU48
L-carvoneL-carvoneFlavor compoundHS-SPME-GC-MSP,S49
CitronellolCitronellolFlavor compoundHS-SPME-GC-MSP,S49
LinaloolLinaloolFlavor compoundHS-SPME-GC-MSP,S49
COHbCaboxyhemoglobinCarbonmonoxideGC-MSB53
á-Carotenebeta-CaroteneVitamine (ox. stress)HPLC-UVP,S201
Vit CAscorbic acidVitamine (ox. stress)HPLC-UVP,S201
Vit Ealpha-TocopherolVitamine (ox. stress)HPLC-UVP,S201
4-HNE4-hydroxy-2-nonenaleAldehyde (lipid peroxidation)GC-MSU, EBC202
MDAMalondialdehydeAldehyde (lipid peroxidation)GC-MSU, EBC202
PCPhosphatidylcholineLipid (lipid metabolism)LC-MS/MSP,S203
PEPhosphatidyl-ethanolamineLipid (lipid metabolism)LC-MS/MSP,S203
GlycerolGlycerolExcipient (for e-cigarettes)GC-MSU,P,S,Sa204
Propylene glycolPropylene glycolExcipient (for e-cigarettes)GC-MSU,P,S,Sa204
Benzene (BTX)BenzeneGC-MSB,EB205
Benzole, Toluol, Xylenes(o, m, p)BenzeneGC-MSB,EB205
COHbCarboxyhemoglobinCarbonmonoxide (exposure to CO)PhotometryB206
COexCarbon monoxide in exhaled breathCarbonmonoxide (exposure to CO)ECDEB207
NO2NitriteNitric oxidePhotometryEBC208
NO3NitrateNitric oxidePhotometryEBC208
MTCA2-Methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acidUrinary Cysteinylglycine Adduct (exposure to acetaldehyde)LC-MS/MSU209
MTCG2-Methylthiazolidine-4-carbonyl-glycineUrinary Cysteinylglycine Adduct (exposure to acetaldehyde)LC-MS/MSU209
TCAThiazolidine-4-carboxylic acidUrinary Cysteinylglycine Adduct (exposure to formaldehyde)LC-MS/MSU209
TCGThiazolidine-4-carbonyl-glycineUrinary Cysteinylglycine Adduct (exposure to formaldehyde)LC-MS/MSU209
3-EP3-EthenylpyridineETS markerGC-MSETS210
NicNicotineETS markerGC-MSETS210
Particulate matter (PM)-ETS markerLight scattering or gravimetryETS211
SolanesolSolanesolETS markerHPLC-UVETS212
UV-PM-ETS markerPhotometryETS213
F-PM-ETS markerFluorimetryETS214
COCarbon monoxideETS markerIRETS215
CO2Carbon dioxideETS markerIRETS216
NONitrogen oxideETS markerChemo-luminescenceETS217
NO2Nitrogen dioxideETS markerChemo-luminescenceETS217
AAAcetaldehydeETS markerHPLC-UVETS218
But1,3-ButadieneETS markerGC-MSETS219
BenBenzeneETS markerGC-MSETS220
Ethylbenzene-ETS markerGC-MSETS220
o-/m-/p-/Xylene-ETS markerGC-MSETS220
Toluene-ETS markerGC-MSETS220
BaPBenzo[a]pyreneETS markerGC-MSETS222
PHEPhenanthreneETS markerGC-MSETS222
PYRPyreneETS markerGC-MSETS222
2-AN2-AminonaphthaleneETS markerGC-MSETS223
4-ABP4-AminobiphenylETS markerGC-MSETS223
o-TOLo-ToluidineETS markerGC-MSETS223
MetabolomicsUntargeted Metabolomics profilingIdentification of new biomarkers ( for effect and exposure)GC-TOF-MSU,P,S,Sa224
EugenolEugenolFlavor compoundHS-SPME-GC-MSU,P,S, invitro225
EpiEpirubicinCytostatic drugLC-MS/MSU,W225
NicNicotineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSPBS226
NorNicNornicotineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSPBS226
ANAnabasineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSPBS226
ATAnatabineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSPBS226
3-EP3-ethenylpyridineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSPBS226
SolanesolSolanesolSmoke constituentLC-MSPBS227
NNNNornicotineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSPBS228
NABN-NitrosoanabasineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSPBS228
NATN-NitrosoanatabineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSPBS228
BaPBenzo[a]pyreneSmoke constituentGC-MSPBS229
PHEPhenanthreneSmoke constituentGC-MSPBS229
PYRPyreneSmoke constituentGC-MSPBS229
FluFluoreneSmoke constituentGC-MSPBS229
NapNaphtaleneSmoke constituentGC-MSPBS229
FA [4:0 ? 32:0]Fatty acidsLipid metabolismLC-MS/MSP/SM50
AAProteinogenic Amino acidsAmino acid metabolismLC-MS/MSP/SM51
PGPropylene glycolE-cig markerGC-MSP,S,UM52
GlyGlycerineE-cig markerGC-MSP,S,UM52
TCAThiazolidine-4-carboxylic acidUrinary Cysteinylglycine Adduct (exposure to formaldehyde)UPLC-MS/MSU, PM54
MTCA2-Methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acidUrinary Cysteinylglycine Adduct (exposure to acetaldehyde)UPLC-MS/MSU, PM54
TCGThiazolidine-4-carbonyl-glycineUrinary Cysteinylglycine Adduct (exposure to formaldehyde)UPLC-MS/MSU, PM54
MTCG2-Methylthiazolidine-4-carbonyl-glycineUrinary Cysteinylglycine Adduct (exposure to acetaldehyde)UPLC-MS/MSU, PM54
7-OH-Citronellal7-OH-CitronellalFlavor compoundLC-MS/MSUM55
HCyHomocysteineAA metabolismLC-MS/MSPM57
NNK4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanoneSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM59
NNNNornicotineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM59
NABN-NitrosoanabasineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM59
NATN-NitrosoanatabineSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM59
FAFormaldehydeSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM60
AAAcetaldehydeSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM60
PAPropionaldehydeSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM60
AcetoneAcetoneSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM60
AcroleinAcroleinSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM60
CrotonaldehydeFormaldehydeSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM60
FAFormaldehydeSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM60
MAMethacroleinSmoke constituentLC-MS/MSETS/e-liquids/Aerosol/SmokeM60
TrehaloseTrehalose-LC-MS/MSPBSM61
3-NT3-NitrotyrosineNitrosative stressLC-MS/MSPM63
NNNN-NitrosonornicotineTobacco-specific nitrosamineLC-MS/MSSaM64

B: Blood, EB: Exhaled breath, EBC: Exhaled breath condensate, ETS: Environmental tobacco smoke, F: Feces, GC: Gas chromatography, HPLC-UV: High performance liquid chromatography with photospectrometry, LC: Liquid chromatography, MS: Mass spectrometry, MS/MS: Tandem mass spectrometry, P: Plasma, S: Serum, Sa: Saliva, TOF: Time of flight (mass spectrometry), U: Urine, W: Swipe sample