Biomarkers of Exposure (BoE)

 

Analyte Full Name Parent Compound Matrix Method Reference
Nicotine and equivalents ("Nic+10)
Nic Nicotine
Nicotine U,P,S, Sa,F
LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
Cot Cotinine Nicotine U,P,S, Sa,F LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
OH-Cot trans-3'-hydroxy-cotinine Nicotine U,Sa,F LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
Nic-Gluc Nicotine-glucuronide Nicotine U,F LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
Cot-Gluc Cotinine-glucuronide Nicotine U,F LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014

OH-Cot-

Gluc

3-Hydroxy-cotinine-glucuronide Nicotine U,F LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
NorNic Nornicotine Nicotine U,F LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
NorCot Norcotinine Nicotine U,F LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
Nic-N-Ox Nicotine-N-oxid Nicotine U,F
LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
Cot-N-Ox Cotinine-N-oxid Nicotine U,F LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
HyPyBut 4-hydroxy-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid Nicotine U,F LC-MS/MS Piller et al. 2014
Electronic cigarette exposure
Propylene glycol
Propylene glycol Propylene glycol
U,P,S,Sa
GC-MS
Glycerol Glycerol Glycerol U,P,S,Sa GC-MS
+ all tobacco specific biomarkers
Aromatic amines
4-ABP 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-ABP U
GC-MS Riedel, 2006
3-ABP 3-Aminobiphenyl 3-ABP U GC-MS Riedel, 2006
2-AN 2-Aminonaphtalene 2-ANap U
GC-MS Riedel, 2006
o-Tol o-Toluidine o-Tol U
GC-MS Riedel, 2006
Hemoglobine adducts
CEVal N-2-Cyanoethyl-valine Acrylonitrile B GC-MS Scherer, 2007
HOEtVal N-2-Hydroxyethyl-valine Ethylene oxide B GC-MS Scherer, 2007
MeVal N-Methyl-valine Methyl. agents B GC-MS Scherer, 2007
AAVal Carbamoylethyl-valine Acrylamide B GC-MS Scherer, 2007
4-ABP 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-ABP B GC-MS Richter, 2001
Mercapturic acids
AAMA N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-l-cysteine Acrylamide U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
AMCC N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cystein N,N-Dimethyl-formamide U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
CEMA Cyanoethyl-mercapturic acid Acrylonitrile U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
CMEMA 2-Carboxy-1-methylethyl-mercapturic acid Crotonaldehyde U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
DHBMA Dihydroxybutyl-mercapturic acid 1,3-Butadiene U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
EMA Ethyl-mercapturic acid Ethyl. agents U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
GAMA N-(R,S)-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-l-cystein Acrylamide U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
HEMA 2-Hydroxy-ethyl-mercapturic acid Ethylene oxide U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
HMPMA 3-Hydroxy-1-methylpropyl-mercapturic acid Crotonaldehyde U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
2-HPMA 2-Hydroxypropyl-mercapturic acid Propylene-oxid U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
3-HPMA 3-Hydroxypropyl-mercapturic acid Acrolein U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015

1-MHBMA

1-Hydroxybutene-2-yl mercapturic acid
1,3-Butadiene U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015

2-MHBMA

2-Hydroxybutene-1-yl mercapturic acid 1,3-Butadiene U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
MMA Methyl-mercapturic acid Methyl. agents U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
PHEMA-1 2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl mercapturic acid
Styrene U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
PHEMA-2 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl mercapturic acid Styrene U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
SPMA S-Phenyl-mercapturic acid Benzene U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
SBMA S-benzyl-mercapturic acid Toluene U LC-MS/MS Pluym, 2015
Thioether
Thioether Thioether electrophile compounds
U PM
Acetonitrile
ACN Acetonitrile Acetonitrile P,S GC-MS
Benzene
Benzene Benzene Benzene B,EB
GC-MS Riedel, 1996
Carbon monoxide (CO)
COHb Carboxyhemoglobin B PM
COEx Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath
EB ECD
trans,trans-muconic acid (tt-MA)
tt-MA trans,trans-muconic acid Benzene U GC-MS Scherer, 1998
Nitric oxide (NO)
NO2 Nitrite NO release/uptake
EBC
PM
NO3 Nitrate NO release/uptake EBC PM
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
3-OH-
B(a)p
3-OH-Benzo[a]pyrene B(a)P U LC-MS/MS
2-OH-Flu 2-OH-Fluorene Flu U LC-MS/MS Ramsauer, 2010
1-OH-Nap 1-OH-Naphthalene Nap U LC-MS/MS Ramsauer, 2010
2-OH-Nap 2-OH-Naphthalene Nap U LC-MS/MS Ramsauer, 2010
1-OH-Phe 1-OH-Phenanthrene Phe U LC-MS/MS Ramsauer, 2010
2-OH-Phe 2-OH-Phenanthrene Phe U LC-MS/MS Ramsauer, 2010
3-OH-Phe 3-OH-Phenanthrene Phe U LC-MS/MS Ramsauer, 2010
4-OH-Phe 4-OH-Phenanthrene Phe U LC-MS/MS Ramsauer, 2010
9-OH-Phe 9-OH-Phenanthrene Phe U LC-MS/MS Ramsauer, 2010
1-OH-Pyr 1-OH-Pyrene Pyr U LC-MS/MS Ramsauer, 2010
Thiocyanate
SCN Thiocyanate HCN U,P,S,Sa GC-MS Scherer, 2006
Tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA)
NAB N-Nitroso-anabasine Anabasine U LC-MS/MS Kavvadias, 2009
NAT N-Nitroso-anatabine Anatabine U LC-MS/MS Kavvadias, 2009
NNN N-Nitroso-nornicotine Nor-Nic U LC-MS/MS Kavvadias, 2009
NNAL 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol NNK U LC-MS/MS Kavvadias, 2009
NNAL-Gluc 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol-glucuronide NNK U LC-MS/MS Meger 2000
DNA-adduct
4-HPB 4-
hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone
TSNA, DNA-adducts

cell-

lysate

LC-MS/MS
Urinary DNA Adducts
MeAde 3-Methyl-adenine Methyl. agents U LC-MS/MS Feng, 2006
EtAde 3-Ethyl-adenine Ethyl. agents U LC-MS/MS Feng, 2006
eAde 1,N6-Etheno-adenine Oxid. stress U LC-MS/MS Scherer, 2006
eCyt 3,N4-Etheno-cytosine Oxid. stress U LC-MS/MS Scherer, 2006
8-OHdG 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine Oxid. stress U LC-MS/MS Feng, 2006
Urinary Cysteinylglycine Adducts
MTCG 2-Methylthiazolidine-4-carbonyl-glycine Acetaldehyde U LC-MS/MS
MTCA 2-Methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid Acetaldehyde U LC-MS/MS
TCG Thiazolidine-4-carbonyl-glycine Formaldehyde U LC-MS/MS
TCA Thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid Formaldehyde U LC-MS/MS
Cytostatics
Epirubicin Epirubucin Epirubicin U LC-MS/MS
Doxo Doxorubicin Doxorubicin U LC-MS/MS
Pacli Paclitaxel Paclitaxel U LC-MS/MS

Abbreviations: B-Blood, EB-Exhaled breath, EBC-Exhaled breath condensate, ECD-Electro chemical detection, F-Feces; P-Plasma, S-Serum, Sa-Saliva, U-Urine, W-swipe sample.